Australia Chat

Australia Chat

Australia Chat

Australia, or officially the Commonwealth of Australia (English: Commonwealth of Australia), is a continental country located in the Southern Hemisphere. It lies between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. It is located in the continent of Oceania and occupies a very large part of the continent. Its neighbors are Indonesia, East Timor, Papua New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and New Zealand. Its capital is Canberra and its largest city is Sydney.

Australia is established on a total area of ​​8,698,850 km2, of which 8,617,930 km2 is on land and 80,920 km2 is in water. It has no land borders with any country. Being the 6th largest country in the world with this surface area, Australia has a coastline of 25,760 kilometers.

Indigenous Aboriginal people have hosted the island for about 50,000 years, before the discovery and migration of Europeans in the 18th century. The languages ​​spoken by the Aborigines are divided into approximately 250 different groups according to the calculations made as a result of modern research. Forced immigration, initiated by the United Kingdom with criminal deportation, continued from 1788 to 1868 and concentrated around New South Wales. Since the first settlement years, the population has increased steadily and the entire island has been discovered in the middle of the 19th century, and 5 new Royal colonies have been established. On January 1, 1901, 6 colonies united to become a federal structure and formed the Commonwealth of Australia. Adopting the liberal-democratic political system since its establishment, Australia consists of 6 states and relative territories. The majority of the population of 24 million is settled on the east coast, and it is a country with a very high urbanization rate.

According to the International Monetary Fund, while Australia is the 13th largest economy in the world, it ranks 9th in the world in terms of per capita income. The country also ranks second in the Human Development Index after Norway in many criteria such as living standards, health, education, personal freedom and political rights. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, OECD, World Trade Organization, Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation and Pacific Islands Forum.

origin

A view from the southern part of Port Jackson, where the city of Sydney was founded. (Taken from A Voyage to Terra Australis.)
The name Australia is derived from the Latin word Australis, which means belonging to the south. The meaning of an unknown country in the south (terra australis incognita), dating back to the time of Roman civilization, indicates that a similar place was also found in the Middle Ages. However, this information does not contain any known continent information. The Latin term Terra Australis Incognita; The Unknown (Incognita) in the south (Australis) means the piece of land (Terra).

On May 14, 1606, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, who set foot in Vanuatu, claimed that all land ownership in the South Pole belonged to the Kingdom of Spain and named the continent Austrialía del Espíritu Santo.

The Dutch word Australische was used by the Dutch in Batavia before 1638 to designate new places discovered in the south. The first use of the word “Australia” in the English language was seen in the 1693 translation of the French novel Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe written by Gabriel de Foigny in 1692.

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Later, in 1765, Alexander Dalrymple used the word when he translated into English a book by Luis Váez de Torres in which he described his 1606 voyage to the south coast of New Guinea. Dalrymple also used the word Australia to describe the entire Oceania region in his An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771). In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which definitions of the large island, the great continent, Australia, Australasia and New Holland were made.

The name Australia was made popular by explorer Matthew Flinders’ A Voyage to Terra Australis (1814), the first known human to circumnavigate the continent by ship. Despite the name reflecting the perspective of the British Kingdom, he used the name Flinders Australia in his work, and this name became a widely spoken term. The governor of New South Wales, Lachlan Macquarie, later used the name in written messages he sent to England. In 1817 Macquarie proposed the official adoption of this name, and in 1824 the British Kingdom approved the continent to be officially recognized as Australia.

history
Main article: Australian history

In 1770, Captain James Cook charted the east coast of Australia with his HM Bark Endeavor and declared that he annexed them to Great Britain. This copy was taken from Cooktown, where Cook spent seven weeks, and was made in Fremantle in 1988.

Port Arthur, Tasmania, was Australia’s largest penal colony.
It is estimated that the first human settlements in Australia appeared between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago. The first Australians were the ancestors of the present-day Aborigines. They settled on the island from Southeast Asia by crossing land links or short-distance waters.

Even when Europeans began arriving in the late 18th century, most of these people were naturalists. They lived by the Aboriginal mythology of dreamtime (English: Dreamtime), which respected nature with a complex linguistic culture and spiritual value.

Another indigenous people living on the island, the Torres Strait Indians (English: Torres Strait Islanders), are ethnically of Melanesian descent. These people settled in various areas on the Torres Strait Islands and the northern extremities of Queensland. Their cultural habits differ markedly from Aboriginals.

Arrival of the Europeans
The first European to see the Australian mainland according to official records was Dutch explorer Willem Janszoon. Janszoon saw the Cape York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch mapped the entire western and northern coastline and named it New Holland. However, they did not make any effort to establish a settlement. English explorer and pirate William Dampier set foot on the north-west coast of New Holland in 1688 and returned in 1699. In 1770, James Cook traveled the east coast of Australia, mapped the area, and declared that he annexed what he called New South Wales to the territory of Great Britain. Expeditionary discoveries quickly led to the establishment of colonies where prisoners and detainees were employed as workers for the exploitation of the continent.

The British Overseas Colonies started with the colony of New South Wales for the first time on the continent, with the establishment of a settlement in Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on January 26, 1788. This date was later declared the national day of Australia (Australia Day). This first settlement opened the way to the founding of Sydney and the exploration of the environment, triggering subsequent settlements. Settlement in Van Diemen’s Land, now known as Tasmania, was established in 1803.

has begun. The explorer Abel Tasman, who discovered the place in 1642, named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt in honor of Anthony van Diemen, the governor and general of the Dutch South India Colonies, who sent him on this journey. Van Diemen’s Land became a separate colony in 1825. The Tasmanian Genocide was committed against the Tasmanian natives during the colonial period of 1803-1847. The United Kingdom controlled the western part of Australia in 1829. New and separate colonies were created in various parts of New South Wales; South Australia (1836), Victoria (1851) and Queensland (1859), respectively. The Northern Territory (NT) was established in 1863 as part of the state of South Australia. South Australia was established as a free state and has never been a penal colony, as in other colonies, where prisoners and detainees are employed. The bringing of criminals to the island continued at intervals between 1840 and 1864. In New South Wales, on the other hand, as a result of the protests of the settlers, it ended the settlement of convicts and detainees in 1848.

The population of the Australian aborigines is estimated to be around 350,000 when Europeans began to settle on the continent[14]. Since then, their numbers have decreased rapidly in the past 150 years. The main reason for this is the combination of epidemic diseases with forcing them to migrate and cultural fragmentation. Thousands more died as a result of border wars with European (mostly British) settlers.

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The “assimilation” process, which started with the Aboriginal Protection Act of 1869 by the government, separated many Native families from each other. The collection of Indigenous children from their families is termed by some historians and Native Australians as creating a “lost generation”. At the same time, these historians and native Australians argue that the indigenous communities were dispersed and depopulated, and that this should be considered a genocide. The act of devshirme, which is carried out with the aim of creating a peaceful and trouble-free society, is defined as a violation of human rights today. Some object to these interpretations of the history of the Aborigines and state that they are exaggerated for political and intellectual reasons and are fabrications. This discussion is known in Australia as the History Wars. After the 1967 referendum, the federal government obtained executive power and the right to pass laws on Aboriginals. Ownership of the island’s indigenous people was not recognized until the Supreme Court of Australia in Mabo v Queensland (No 2). After this case, the concept of ownership in Australia changed and it was stated that the island did not belong to anyone during the European invasion (Terra Nullius).

Last Post ceremony on ANZAC Day in Port Melbourne, Victoria, 25 April 2005. This ceremony is repeated annually in almost all suburbs and towns of Australia.
In the 1850s the Gold rush began in Australia, and in 1854 the first civil uprising against mining license fees, the Eureka Stockade uprising, took place. Between 1855 and 1890, six colonies individually gained the right to self-government and began to self-manage many of their personal affairs. The colonial office in London still held the management of important foreign affairs, defense matters, and international shipping and trade matters.

Nation Consciousness
With the federation that took place on January 1, 1901, after a ten-year plan, they obtained the right to elect and be elected, to be represented.[19] Thus, under the rule of the United Kingdom, the Crown of Australia was born. After Canberra was proposed as the new federal capital, in 1911 the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), the capital region of Australia, was established in the New South Wales region. (Melbourne was the capital between 1901-1927.) Again in 1911, the Northern Territory (NT) passed from the control of the South Australian (SA) government to the control of the Royal Australian State.

Australia voluntarily joined World War I. The strong support of the Federal Liberal Party and the Labor Party plays an important role behind this decision. Although they took part in many battles on the Western Front of World War I, the Battle of Çanakkale has a special importance for Australia. Many Australians remember with respect the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC – Australian and New Zealand Army Corps) after the Battle of Gallipoli and accept this date as the birth date of the nation. This date is also the country’s first major military event. Like the Battle of Gallipoli, World War II. The Battle of the Kokoda Track, which took place during World War II, is also an event of national importance by many.

Whitehaven Beach in the Whitsunday Islands; Queensland/Australia.

Sidney Harbor Bridge after dark
Many legal connections between Australia and the United Kingdom are due to the fact that Australia passed the Westminster Act of 1931 (British) in 1942.

The shock defeat of the United Kingdom in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japan’s invasion of Australia brought Australia closer to the United States, which it saw as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been an official military ally of the United States under the ANZUS treaty. II. After World War II, Australia supported all immigration from Europe. Immigrants from Asia and other parts of the world were also supported in the 1970s with the repeal of the White European Policy, which allowed only Europeans to immigrate. As a result, the population, culture and image of Australia has changed radically.

The last legal bond between Australia and the United Kingdom ended with the 1986 Australian Act. The British domination over the Australian states and judicial applications to the UK Privy Council have been terminated. Despite this, Australian voters rejected the transition to republican rule with a 55% majority in the 1999 referendum. Since the 1972 Whitlam Government, a growing concept of Pacific-Asian affiliation has emerged in Australian foreign policy, while relations with traditional allies and commercial partners continue.

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