China, officially the People’s Republic of China (short: PRC; Chinese: About this sound 中华人民共和国 (help info), Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó), unitary sovereign state in East Asia ruled by the Chinese Communist Party as a one-party regime . With a population of approximately 1.4 billion, it is the world’s most populous country, with 9.6 million km², the 3rd largest country in terms of land area and the 3rd or 4th largest country in terms of total area.[a] 22 states, 5 autonomous regions, 4 directly administered city and sovereign administrative region of Hong Kong and Macau, and claims sovereignty over Taiwan.
Chinese; It emerged as one of Earth’s first civilizations in the fertile Yellow River basin in the North China Plain. The political system in China was for thousands of years based on hereditary monarchies or dynasties, the first of which was the semi-legendary Xia Dynasty. Since the early dynasties, China has expanded, divided, and reunited many times over. In 1912, the Republic of China (ROC) took over the government of China, overthrowing the last dynasty, the Qing Dynasty, and ruled mainland China until it was defeated by the People’s Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War in 1949. On September 21, 1949, the Communist Party established the People’s Republic of China in Beijing; The ROC government withdrew to Taiwan and made Taipei the de facto capital. Both ROC and PRC argue that it is the only legitimate government of all of China, but PRC is better known worldwide and dominates far more land and people.
Since the implementation of economic reforms in 1978, the Chinese economy has been one of the fastest growing economies in the world. As of 2021, it is the world’s second largest economy in terms of nominal GDP and the largest economy in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), as well as the world’s largest exporter and second largest importer of goods. China, a nuclear-armed state, has the world’s largest number of active soldiers and the second largest defense budget. The PRC became a permanent member of the Security Council, taking ROC’s place in the UN in 1971. It is also a member of WTO, APEC, BRICS, SCO, BCIM, G20 and many other official and informal multi-faceted organizations. China is an important regional power, especially in Asia; moreover, it has been described as a potential superpower, playing an increasingly larger role around the world in recent years.
According to the Sevan Nişanyan Etymological Dictionary, the Turkish word “Çin” entered into Turkish from the Persian word Çīn (چین); its origin is the Sogdian word Chīn, which has the same meaning. Some other sources claim that the origin of the Persian word goes back to the Sanskrit word Cīna (चीन). The use of the Sanskrit word Cīna with reference to China dates back to 150 AD. The word Cīna is also present in the Mahabharata and Manusmriti texts, although it is possible that Indian writers were unaware of the existence of China before the 1st century BC. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the name China was derived from the name of the Qin (“Chinese”) Dynasty (221-206 BC). This proposal has been accepted by many researchers, but there are also many alternative ideas.
The official name of the modern state is “People’s Republic of China” (Chinese: 中华人民共和国; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó), with the more common abbreviation “China” Zhōngguó (中国); it consists of the words zhōng (“middle” or “centre”) and guó (“state”, “nation-state”). The Chinese term Zhōngguó developed under the Zhou Dynasty as a term used to refer to its royal denomination .[c] It was later used to describe the area around Luoyi (modern-day Luoyang) during the Eastern Zhou period, later the Central Plain of China, and later the state under the Qing Dynasty. It functioned as a frequently used cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia tribes from peoples perceived as “barbarian”, and is the origin of the synonym “Middle Kingdom” in foreign language sources about China. Zhōnghuá (中华) is a more literal or inclusive name, implying “the land of Chinese civilization.” It arose during the Wei and Jin dynasties as an abbreviation for “central state of Huaxia”. Prior to the founding of the People’s Republic of China, at the first Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference held on June 15, 1949, the country’s proposed name was the Democratic People’s Republic of China (Simplified Chinese: 中华人民民主共和国; Traditional Chinese: 中華人民民主共和國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Rénmín Mínzhǔ Gònghéguó ) were. In the 1950s and 1960s, after the Kuomintang lost the Chinese Civil War, it was also referred to as “Communist China” or “Red China” as opposed to “Nationalist China” or “Free China”.
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