Indonesia Chat

Indonesia Chat

Indonesia Chat

Indonesia (Indonesian: Indonesia), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Republik Indonesia), is a country located in Southeast Asia and Oceania, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It consists of more than 17 thousand islands. The largest of these islands are Sumatra, Java, and Sulavesi, and partly Borneo and New Guinea. Indonesia is the world’s largest island country, with an area of ​​1,904,569 km², ranking 14th in the world. With a population of around 270 million, it is the fourth most populous country in the world and also the most populous Muslim country. Java is the most populated island in the world and is home to more than half the population.

Indonesia is a democracy with a presidential system. The country is divided into 34 provinces, five of which are with special status. The capital of the country, Jakarta, is the second most populous metropolis in the world. land neighbors; Papua New Guinea, East Timor and Malaysia. It has maritime borders with Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, and the Indian and Indian-bound Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its high population, Indonesia has extensive wilderness areas and is one of the countries with the highest level of biodiversity.

The Indonesian archipelago became an important trading area in the seventh century, when Srivijaya and Majapahit began trading with China and the Indian subcontinent. Local leaders gradually assimilated foreign cultures, religions, and political systems from ancient times, thus establishing Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms. Sunni traders and Sufi clergy brought Islam to the region, while Christianity spread through European explorers. The European powers fought each other to obtain Maluku, which is called the “Spice Island”, and to monopolize the trade in the region through geographical discoveries. The Netherlands was the leading colonial power in the region for 350 years, although Portugal, France, and Britain enjoyed brief dominance. Indonesian national consciousness emerged in the early 20th century. The country was declared World War II in 1945. It declared independence with the end of World War II. However, the Dutch did not recognize this declaration, and a period of conflict and diplomatic struggle ensued between the two countries, which resulted in the Dutch recognition of independent Indonesia in 1949. Indonesian history was then turbulent, with natural disasters, corruption, division, the post-Suharto democratization process and rapid economic changes.

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Indonesia consists of ethnic groups with different languages, religions and cultures. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group. Indonesia has developed a national language, ethnic diversity, a combination of different religions, mostly Muslim, a common identity defined by a history of colonialism and rebellion. Indonesia’s national motto “Bhinneka Tunggal Ika” meaning “unity in multiplicity” means that diversity shapes the country. Indonesia is the 15th largest economy in the world by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by purchasing power parity. The country is the only regional power in Southeast Asia and is considered a middle power in international relations. Indonesia is a member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, G20, Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN, East Asia Summit and Organization of Islamic Cooperation. Despite its rich natural resources, poverty is common in Indonesia today.

Etymology
The name Indonesia is derived from the Latin Indus and the Greek nesos, meaning “island”. The name dates back to the 18th century, long before Indonesian independence. In 1850, the British ethnologist George Earl proposed the names Indunesians and Malayunesians for the inhabitants of the Indian and Malay archipelagos in the region. In the same work, James Richardson Logan, one of George Earl’s students, used the name Indonesia synonymously with the Indian Archipelago.[10] However, Dutch scholars refrained from using the name Indonesia in the works they wrote during the colonial period. Instead, they used the names Malay Archipelago, Dutch East India, East India and Insulinde.

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After 1900, the name Indonesia began to be widely used in academic circles outside the Netherlands. Indonesian nationalist groups against Dutch colonialism began to use this name to denote a political point of view. Adolf Bastian of the University of Berlin popularized the name Indonesia between 1884-1894 with his work Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels. The first Indonesian educator to use the name Indonesia was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), who gave the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau to the press office he founded in the Netherlands in 1913.

Date

A painting engraved in the Borobudur temple around 800 AD. Indonesian seafarers may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the first century AD.
The oldest known information about the history of Indonesia is about the people from Malaysia and settled there 4-5 thousand years ago. Since ancient times, the islands on which the country is located have been of great importance in maritime trade. For this reason, the people were usually sailors or merchants. In historical times, the country was the maritime trade route of China, India, Persia and the Byzantine Empire. It still maintains this feature. In ancient times, trade ships used to visit here and buy spices, resins and valuable timber. Due to this importance in trade, people who came and settled in Indonesia from various parts of the world caused new ideas and traditions to settle in the country. In these periods, tribal administrations became kingdoms in the country. So much so that each island was a separate kingdom. Until the seventh and thirteenth centuries, the most powerful kingdoms in the region were the kingdoms of Sumatra and Java. As a result of their power, they dominated the trade in the region. In the twelfth and fifteenth centuries, Muslim traders from India and Malaysia, who came here for trade, were instrumental in the spread of Islam.

Nutmeg is native to Indonesia’s Banda Islands. While this plant was once the world’s most valuable commodity, it lured European colonial powers to Indonesia.
Portugal occupied Malacca in 1511. After that, Spain, the Netherlands and the British invaded the country. In addition to exploiting Indonesia, these states were also using India as a base to annex their colonies. At the end of the sixteenth century, the Dutch seized the region’s trade with the companies they established in East India, Java and Moluk. In addition, Dutch influence in the region increased with the establishment of a base in Jakarta. As a result of the agreements of other colonial states, the Netherlands took the country under its full sovereignty at the end of the 18th century.

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Since the early 1900s, as a result of the strengthening of anti-imperialist ideas, the struggle for nationalism and independence against Dutch colonialism actually started. Ahmed Sukarno, one of the leading leaders of this struggle, became the chairman of the Nationalist Party founded in 1927. The Netherlands became concerned about the struggle for independence started by the Indonesian people and gaining strength with each passing day. The people were governed entirely in line with the interests of the Dutch colonialists. In order to appease the nationalism and independence movements and to continue its colonialism, the Netherlands gave the local people the right to participate in the administration as a political game.

The struggle of the people, who were not deceived by this game and wanted full independence, was tried to be suppressed in a bloody way. One of the leaders of the struggle, Ahmed Sukarno and his friends were caught and exiled. In World War II, Japan occupied Indonesia. Politically, the Japanese supported the independence struggle of the people of the country against the Dutch. The Japanese allowed the nationalists to form a government.

Sukarno is Indonesia’s first president.
With the surrender of the Japanese on August 17, 1945, a government was established in Indonesia under the presidency of Ahmed Sukarno and they declared their independence. The Netherlands did not recognize Indonesian independence. The struggle that started between Indonesia and the Netherlands for this reason resulted in Indonesia’s victory. The Netherlands had to officially recognize the “United States of Indonesia”. In 1950, the name of the state was changed to “Republic of Indonesia”. New Guinea, one of the islands where the country is established. It remained in the hands of the Dutch. Indonesia only liberated the western part of the island from the Dutch in 1962. In May 1965, there was a revolutionary attempt supported by China and the USSR.

This initiative, led by left-wing generals and officers from various units and the Indonesian Communist Party, was suppressed as a result of massive conspiracies by the US secret services and because of the very inadequate Marxist culture in the country. In the civil war in which around 1,000,000 people died, communists and those suspected of being communists were eliminated in a massacre that is rare in the world. Especially the Chinese minority was eliminated. The government of Ahmed Sukarno, which was worn out by the events that took place since the establishment of the state, came to an end with the government coup carried out by General Suharto in 1967.

General Suharto, who came to power at the end of the coup, also won the elections held later. In 1982 Sebker won the election. In 1983, Suharto was elected president for the fourth time, on March 10, 1988, for the fifth time. But in a major uprising in 1998, Suharto and his political regime were overthrown. The country began to be governed by an ordinary parliamentary democracy.

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