Portugal, or officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa), is the westernmost country of the European Continent, located on the Iberian Peninsula in the southwest of Europe. Portugal is surrounded by Spain to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and west. The Azores and Madeira archipelagos, located in the northern hemisphere of the Atlantic Ocean, are part of Portugal with their autonomous administrations.
Over the past 3,100 years, the lands of Portugal have witnessed the transition of various civilizations, including Phoenicians, Greeks, Romans, Germans, and Andalusian Umayyads, which have influenced the country’s culture, history, language and ethnicity. In the 5th century, the Portuguese country was called Terra Portucalis in Latin, after the cities of Portu (present-day Porto) and Cale (present-day Vila Nova de Gaia) at the mouth of the Douro River.
King of Castile and Leon VI in 1093. Alfonso gave the lands in the southwest of his kingdom to Henrique de Borgonha, establishing the County of Portus Cale. This county, called Comes Portucalensis, witnessed the birth of an independent kingdom in the following years. Extending from Brazil to the Philippines in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Portuguese Empire was one of the world’s leading economic, political and cultural powers. With the end of the empire in the 20th century, Portugal returned to Europe and today it forms part of the European Union with its balanced democratic structure.
Portugal was crowned King of Castile and León VII on 5 October 1143. It was established as an independent country when Alfonso recognized the independence of the Portuguese County and accepted Afonso I as the King of Portugal. After it was established on an area that is half of its present territory, Afonso and the kings who came after him continued to move south in order to get more land from the Andalusians with the military support of the Christian sects. After reaching the southern shores of the Algarve in 1249, the Portuguese Reconquista (Conquest) came to an end.
When the King of Castile, who was married to the daughter of the King of Portugal, who died in 1383 without leaving a male heir, claimed the throne of Portugal, the popular uprising led to the 1383-1385 Crisis. Units of some nobles and commoners under the rule of João of Aviz and general Nuno Álvares Pereira, who later took the throne of Portugal as João I, defeated the Castilian troops at the Battle of Aljubarrota. This war is still seen as a symbol of the struggle for independence with neighboring Spain and is considered the most famous war in Portuguese history.
The alliance with England in 1373 continues today and is probably considered the longest alliance in history. In the years following this alliance, Portugal pioneered the discovery of the world and started the Age of Discovery. Prince Infante Henrique o Navegador (Marine Henrique), son of King João I, played a major role in the beginning of this era and was the main promoter of expeditions.
The Portuguese Empire began in 1415 when a Portuguese fleet captured Ceuta, the rich trading center in North Africa. This was followed by the first discoveries in the Atlantic Ocean, and the first colonial movements began with the discovery of the Azores and Madeira.
During the 15th century, Portuguese explorers traveled south along the African coast in search of the route to India, the land of precious spices that were highly sought after in Europe, and established trading posts along the way. Finally, in 1498, Vasco da Gama reached India by sea, and a period of prosperity began for Portugal with a population of one million, one-tenth of today.
Portuguese Empire 1410-1999
Pedro Álvares Cabral, who set foot in Brazil in 1500, added this place to Portugal. Ten years later, Afonso de Albuquerque invaded Goa in India, Hormuz in the Persian Gulf, and Malacca in present-day Malaysia. Therefore, the Portuguese Empire seized the sovereignty of the trade routes in the Indian Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean.
From 1580 to 1640, the independence of Portugal was interrupted for a while. When Portuguese King Sebastião I, who died during the Battle of Vadisseyl with the Ottoman Moroccan forces in Morocco, did not leave a male heir, the King of Spain II. Felipe claimed the throne and ascended the throne as King Philip I of Portugal. This war not only removed Portugal from the class of great powers, but also eliminated the threat to North Africa and Morocco, and made the Ottoman state the undisputed ruler of North Africa.However, with the support of the Portuguese nobles who were not satisfied with this, IV. João was proclaimed king in 1640, initiating the Bragança dynasty. At the same time, Great Britain and the Netherlands were attacking to seize the overseas territories of the Portuguese Empire, and Portugal entered a period of decline that would last well into the 20th century, especially with the independence of Brazil in 1822.
The republican revolution of 5 October 1910 abolished the Portuguese monarchy. However, the ongoing chaos and the important economic problems increased by the military participation in the First World War caused the military coup on 28 May 1926. As a result of this coup, António de Oliveira Salazar was brought to power by the right-wing military dictatorship that would last until 1933 by ensuring the economic balance and social order. Estado Novo (New State), a traditionalist authoritarian regime known for its closeness to fascism, was established by Salazar with the adoption of a new constitution. II. This regime continued to survive due to the aid it provided to the Central Powers during World War II.
The independence movements that started in Angola in 1961, in Portuguese Guinea in 1963 and in Mozambique in 1964 led to the Portuguese Colonial Wars and weakened the ruling regime. In 1968, Salazar left the administration and was replaced by Marcelo Caetano. The bloodless leftist military coup on April 25, 1974 not only gave African colonies their independence, but also paved the way for the establishment of today’s democratic regime. Portugal, which was accepted as a full member of the European Union in 1986, started to use the Euro currency in 1999.
Portugal Chat powered by HybridIRC Community Network
#PortugalChat #PortugueseChat #PortugueseMobileChat