Russia (Russian: Росси́я, romanized: Rossiya, UFA: About this sound[rɐˈsʲijə] (help info)) or officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, romanized: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya fʲɪrjəsrjə (UFA) help·info)) is a federal semi-presidential republic in Northern Eurasia.
Russia from northwest to southeast; It borders Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It is bordered by the Sea of Okhotsk with Japan as a maritime border, by the Bering Strait of Alaska, a US state, and by the Black Sea with Turkey. With an area of 17,098,246 km², or 17,125,191 km² when the unrecognized regions of Sevastopol and Crimea are taken into account, it is the world’s largest country and covers one-eighth of the world’s living area. Russia is also the ninth most populous country in the world with a population of 145.9 million as of 2021. Stretching across all of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and features a wide variety of environments and landforms.
The history of Russia begins with the Eastern Slavs, who emerged as a recognized group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries. The medieval state of Kievan Rus emerged, founded and ruled by the Varangians in the 9th century. In 988, Orthodox Christianity was accepted from the Byzantine Empire, and the synthesis of Russian culture, defined Byzantine and Slavic cultures for the next millennium began. Later, the Principality of Kyiv was disintegrated into a series of small states, and most of its territory was invaded by the Mongols and became branches of the Golden Horde State. With the weakening of the Golden Horde State in the 15th century, the Russian principalities that declared their independence gradually reunited and established the Moscow Principality, and became the successor of the cultural and political heritage of the Kievan Principality. By the 18th century, largely through conquest, annexation, and exploration, it had become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.
After the October Revolution of 1917, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the world’s first constitutional socialist state and World War II. He became the greatest and foremost founder of the Soviet Union, a recognized superpower that played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II Some of the most important technological achievements of the 20th century were achieved during the Soviet era, including Earth’s first artificial satellite and the first manned space flight. The Russian Federation was established in 1991 after the collapse of the Soviet Union and is recognized as the successor of the USSR.
The Russian economy is the ninth largest in the world by nominal GDP and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity. Russia has one of the world’s largest mineral and energy resources and is one of the world’s largest oil and natural gas producers. Russia is one of the five recognized nuclear-armed states and has the world’s largest stockpiles of weapons of mass destruction. It is also one of the great powers, a permanent member of the UN and the UNSC, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and the World Trade Organization, and a leading Commonwealth of Independent States. is a member.
The name Russia is derived from the Russian state, a medieval state inhabited mostly by the Eastern Slavs. However, this name became more pronounced later in history, and the country was often called by its inhabitants the name “Русская Земля” (Russkaya Zemlya, Russian Country). In order to distinguish it from other states derived from this name, it is called Kievan Russia in modern history. The name Rus comes from the Russian people, a group of Varangians (probably Swedish Vikings) who were the founders of the Russian (Русь) state.
Ruthenia, the old Latin version of the Russian name, mostly referred to the western and southern parts of the Russian region, which is adjacent to Catholic Europe. The current name of the country, Россия (Rossiya), comes from the Greek word Ρωσία (Rosia), which is the Greek version of the Russian name and was also the pronunciation of Kievan Rus’ by the Byzantine Empire.
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