Turkish Chat

Turkish Chat

Turkish Chat

Turkey, or officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country with most of its territory in Anatolia and a small part in Thrace, the southeastern extension of the Balkan Peninsula. It is bordered by Bulgaria in the northwest, Greece in the west, Georgia in the northeast, Armenia, Iran and Azerbaijan in the east, Nakhchivan, and Iraq and Syria in the southeast. It is surrounded by the island of Cyprus and the Mediterranean in the south, the Aegean Sea in the west and the Black Sea in the north. The Sea of ​​Marmara, along with the Bosphorus and the Dardanelles, separates Anatolia from Thrace, that is, Asia from Europe. Turkey has an important geostrategic power as it is located at the crossroads of the European and Asian continents.

The first settlements on the territory of Turkey begin in the Paleolithic Age. After various ancient Anatolian civilizations such as the Thracians in Eastern Thrace, the Hittites, Phrygians, Lydians and the Ionian civilization founded by the Achaeans who fled from Greece as a result of the Doric invasion, the Hellenistic Period began with the sovereignty and conquests of Alexander the Great, king of Macedonia. Afterwards, there were the Roman Empire and Byzantine periods, when Anatolia became Christian, respectively. With the Battle of Manzikert, which the Seljuk Turks won against Byzantium in 1071,

the Byzantine dominance in Anatolia was broken to a large extent and Anatolia was captured by the Turkish lords of the Seljuks in a short time and Islamization and Turkization activities began on the Anatolian lands. Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, centered in Konya, which soon established dominance over other Turkish principalities in Anatolia, ruled Anatolia until the Battle of Kösedağ, which was lost against the Mongols in 1243. The Anatolian Seljuk State, which fell into a weak state after the Mongol invasions in Anatolia, left its place to the new Turkish principalities in Anatolia.

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The Ottomans, which came to the forefront and gained independence as one of the Turkish principalities in Western Anatolia since the end of the 13th century, became a great power with the conquests they carried out in the Balkan lands in the 14th century and also established dominance over other Turkish principalities in Anatolia. Ottomans, in 1453 II. It became a great empire when Mehmed conquered Istanbul and ended the Byzantine Empire. The empire reached its peak in the 16th century, especially during the reign of Suleiman I. II in 1683. The Ottoman Empire’s superiority over Europe came to an end as a result of the defeat following the Siege of Vienna and the Holy Alliance Wars that lasted for 15 years.

By the 19th century, the empire entered a serious modernization process called the Tanzimat. The First Constitutional Era, which started with the declaration of the constitution and the opening of the parliament in 1876, lasted until 1878, but in 1908 II. Constitution was declared and the constitution came into effect again. However, the reforms could not prevent the disintegration of the empire. The empire, which entered the First World War, which started in 1914, on the side of the Allied Powers, was defeated as a result of the war and accepted the surrender of all armies on October 30, 1918, and was subsequently occupied by the Allies.

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The Turkish Grand National Assembly was established in Ankara on April 23, 1920, under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, with the closure of the Parliament as a result of the Allied Powers’ occupation of Istanbul and the deportation of some of its deputies on March 16, 1920. Under his leadership, the War of Independence (1919-1922) against the occupying forces was successful, and with the abolition of the sultanate by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on November 1, 1922, the Ottoman monarchy and the Ottoman Empire became history. After the proclamation of the republic on October 29, 1923, and the abolition of the caliphate on March 3, 1924, and the exile of the Ottoman Dynasty abroad, a series of revolutions took place that would have an important place in the formation of modern Turkey.

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Turkey is a democratic, secular and unitary constitutional republic governed by a presidential system. Its official language is Turkish, which is the mother tongue of 85% of the population. Turks make up 70-80% of the country, the rest are legally recognized nations according to the Treaty of Lausanne (Armenians, Greeks and Jews), legally unrecognized Kurds and other peoples (Albanians, Bosnians, Circassians, Georgians, Laz and Zazas, etc.).

The majority of its population is Muslim.Being a member of the Council of Europe, NATO, OECD, OSCE and G-20 communities, Turkey is integrated with the Western world. It became an associate member of the European Economic Community in 1963, joined the EU Customs Union in 1995, and started negotiations for full membership to the European Union in 2005. The country is also a member of organizations such as the Organization of Turkic States, the International Organization of Turkic Culture, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation and the Economic Cooperation Organization. Today, Turkey is considered a regional power thanks to its growing economy, military capacity and diplomatic initiatives.

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